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Deprivation

Deprivation is the lack of access to opportunities and resources which we might expect in our society.

The Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation (WIMD) is the Welsh Government's official measure of relative deprivation for small areas in Wales.  It identifies areas with the highest concentrations of several different types of deprivation.  

WIMD is now made up of eight separate domains (or types) of deprivation: income; employment; health; education; access to services; community safety; physical environment and housing.  The domains used in WIMD relate to both material and social aspects of deprivation.  Material deprivation is having insufficient physical resources - food, shelter, and clothing - necessary to sustain a certain standard of life.  Social deprivation refers to the ability of an individual to participate in the normal social life of the community.

Knowing how deprivation is distributed across Wales is important when developing area-based policies, programmes and funding.  WIMD can be used to inform these decisions and give a greater understanding of deprivation trends within Wales.  WIMD can be used for:

  • Identifying the most deprived small areas
  • Comparing relative deprivation of small areas
  • Exploring the 8 domains (types) of deprivation for small areas
  • Comparing the proportion of small areas within a larger area that are very deprived
  • Using indicator data (but not the ranks) to compare absolute change over time.

WIMD is calculated for all small areas (Lower layer Super Output Areas - LSOAs) in Wales.  Following the 2011 Census, 1,909 LSOAs were defined in Wales (148 in Swansea) and they have an average population of 1,600 people.

WIMD 2019 results were published by Welsh Government on 27 November 2019.  Further information, including the WIMD 2019 data for Swansea, is available here.

Detailed information on the previous Index, including the full results for local areas in Swansea and guidance on how the data should be used, is available via the WIMD 2014 page.  Alongside WIMD 2014 and subsequently, Welsh Government have also published regular indicator data for the different domains, including (for some indicators) by age group.

If you would like any further information about WIMD, or other statistics related to aspects of deprivation, please contact us.

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