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Website URL : http://www.swansea.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=52962

Job Evaluation Process


The Council has a legal obligation to introduce a new pay and grading structure and harmonise terms and conditions for employees who are employed under various different conditions of service. The reason that the Council has to do this is to make sure that everyone is treated equally.

Which Job Evaluation process was used?

How were jobs allocated?

Allocation Process

Frequently asked questions

Which Job Evaluation process was used?

In July 2008 Cabinet approved the use of the WAYS 'Job Families' approach to evaluate jobs. 'WAYS' is a HR Consulting firm who designed a toolkit for this approach, and this was then adapted for Swansea by officers and trade union representatives. The Swansea JE scheme is underpinned by the Greater London Provincial Council job evaluation scheme.

The Job Families approach is one where a number of 'Job Families' are developed forming a framework for the Council based on job roles rather than traditional Departments. e.g. administration roles, technical roles, social care roles. Within these 'families', jobs (roles) of a similar nature are grouped together at various levels.

Swansea has 7 job families which are:

  •  Administration and Business Support (ABS)
  •  Customer and Community Engagement (CCE)
  •  Learning and People Development (LD) (which includes a Teaching Support sub-family (TA) )
  •  Operational (OP) (which includes a Driving sub-family (DOP) )
  •  Organisation Support (OS)
  •  Regulatory and Technical (RT)
  •  Social Care and Welfare (SCW)

Each family has a number of levels within it (known as 'role profiles') and jobs of a similar nature are allocated to the role profile that provides the 'best match' for that job. In total there are 114 role profiles between the 7 families.

The role profiles were designed by WAYS based on previous job questionnaires, and with input from Managers and Trade Unions. A role profile sets out a generic description of the type of job which will be allocated to it.  For instance they have a purpose, a set of accountabilities and end results. They also include the nature of contacts you may have as part of your job, the working environment, procedural context, indicative qualifications, work knowledge and other aspects.  The job allocation process will identify which jobs should be located in a particular role profile.

The majority of roles that have supervisory / management responsibilities are identified by 'S' role profiles e.g. SCW45S. There is also a role profile in the Social Care and Welfare (SCW) family to accommodate managers of a unit (SCW70U).  Criteria exist to assist in the decision whether a job constitutes a supervisory/managerial role, e.g. does the job undertake at least 3 supervisory responsibilities (such as doing return to work interviews, appraisal, assessing performance/training needs, recruitment and selection of staff, etc.) and how large a part of the overall role is this.

This is different to day to day support, mentoring or professional supervision.

All other profiles are identified as type 'A' (e.g. SCW45A). Allocationpanels used the information provided by managers to identify whether roles met the required level of supervisory or management duties to deem that role to be an 'S', 'U' or 'A'.

Each role profile has a score which helps determine the pay scale for all jobs grouped in it. The role profile into which your job been allocated is enclosed with your Statement of Personal Information.

How were jobs allocated?

The term allocation and evaluation broadly mean the same thing. In the WAYS Job Families approach, jobs are allocated but the role profile is evaluated as part of the allocation process.

A number of staff, Heads of Service, managers, and Trade Union representatives are trained in the Job Families Approach and took part in Allocation Panels to allocate jobs. Each Panel consisted of the relevant Head of Service and/or appropriate manager, Trade Union representatives and a member(s) of the Pay and Grading Team to ensure consistency across the Council. Job descriptions and person specifications, where available, were used to inform the panel of the duties of the job. Advising managers would provide supporting evidence and attend the panel if required.

Each panel used an pdf icon Allocation Toolkit [217kb] (a booklet setting out the WAYS Job Families Approach) to work through the following 3 stages:

  1. Decide which job family the job belonged to;
  2. Consider certain factors (requirements of the role e.g. knowledge and skills etc ) to allocate the job to the relevant role profile;
  3. Assess the working conditions of the job.

Based on these three aspects, each job has been awarded a number of points and these points determine where the job comes out on the new pay scale. The Allocation Toolkit along with a document setting out the pdf icon local conventions [45kb] used as part of this process will be made available for staff to view.

School based jobs such as Teaching Assistant, NNEB were allocated on a benchmark basis. To facilitate this, two panels of Head Teachers were formed – one secondary and one primary. The NJC document "The Way Forward" was consulted and the national profiles were used as the job description. The national profile was then allocated using the Allocation Toolkit. The result was a benchmark for Teaching Assistant Level 1 etc into the relevant TA role profiles e.g. TA10.

We also benchmarked school caretakers on the same basis. Other common jobs were also identified and benchmark allocations were produced.

Each school was then visited by a pay and grading officer and trade union official to ensure that the allocations were correct for the individuals in that establishment. For example, if it was found that in reality AN Other was actually doing a Level 4 role, but had been allocated to a profile which reflected Level 3 then that would be re-allocated. Likewise, any bespoke positions or roles which did not lend themselves to benchmarking were individually allocated.

Allocation Process

The Panel firstly decided the relevant pdf icon Job Family [77kb].

Once the job family was determined, the job was awarded a 'level' in relation to the following pdf icon factors [6kb] – Knowledge and Skills (K), Impact – Discretion (M), Relationships ( R) and Advising (A) Factor .Each factor score is determined using a matrix which can be found at Appendix D of the Staff Information Booklet.

Using these four factors the job was then placed into a role profile, using the Allocation Toolkit.

Each Role Profile was scored at the outset and awarded a number of points (using the GLPC JE Scheme).

These points are set and do not change (e.g. all jobs in OP30A will have a Role Profile Score of 312)

The factor scores for Knowledge, Impact, Relationships and Advisory are used by the toolkit to allocate your job to the most appropriate role profile. Therefore, these scores do not directly relate to the final score. You cannot say (for example) Knowledge is weighted and multiplied by 20 for the final score.

It is important to note that the evaluation process looks at the job requirements not the individual in that job. For example, the only qualifications considered are those required for the job. Additional qualifications held by the person are not considered as they are not relevant.

Factor levels were awarded to reflect the working conditions of the job (pdf icon job working circumstances [9kb]) i.e. working outside, lifting heavy objects, the emotional trauma of the work etc.

JWC comprises of three elements:

  1. Physical Demands (Physical Effort/ Physical Dexterity)
  2. Working Conditions (e.g. working outside or in an office environment)
  3. Work Context (Health & Safety,/ Emotional Risk)

Both Physical Demands and Work Context are split into two elements and only the highest score in each of these sub-sections is included in the final score.

The JWC scores are subject to a formula and weighting. The first 20 points are disregarded for everybody to ensure that proper reward is given for these factors. Everybody, no matter what their job would score at least 20 points for JWC's.  Further information on the JWC score calculation can be found herepdf icon JWC Score Calculation [8kb].

The individual JWC score is added onto the score for the role profile to produce a total individual score which decided where your job is placed on the pay scale.

The total score for your job can be found on your Statement of Personal Information.

An e-learning package has been developed to give managers an overview of the allocation process. It is for informative purposes only.  The package can be accessed via http://swansea.learningpool.com/

 Frequently asked questions- We have attempted to answer a number of queries below:

When did the allocations take place?

The main allocation panels were held between 2009 and 2011 and new/changed jobs have been re-allocated (if warranted) by the Pay & Grading team and trade union colleagues. The outcomes have been subject to continuous checking – we call this 'moderation'. The Pay & Grading team have also been maintaining accuracy by meeting managers to pick up on any staffing or job changes. (This process is known as 'currency').

Did you only look at the Job Description when you were allocating?

Job Descriptions that were current and available were looked at but the Panel also spoke to relevant Managers and Heads of Service for up to date information/evidence regarding roles. This was then recorded as part of the allocation panel process.

How were Teaching Assistants allocated?

In 2004 there was a national assimilation of school support staff where "national profiles" were created. These profiles are contained in a document called "the Way Forward" and were used as job descriptions. For Job Families a panel of head teachers evaluated each national profile to establish benchmarks for posts i.e. TA 1, 2 etc. Once these were evaluated, the P&G team and unions went to each school and met with the Head Teacher to "match" staff to the correct national profile/benchmark on the basis of what they do. 

What if I do not work to a national profile role?

These roles were fully allocated applying the job families approach.

My job has changed since I was evaluated, will this have been taken into account?

We are confident that we have picked up everything through the process of moderation where allocations were reviewed.  If anything is missed, this may merit a ground for appeal (see page 7 of the staff information booklet).

Why haven't I been asked to provide information about my job?

This information was provided by the relevant manager(s). As above, if based on your job evaluation outcome you believe that your job has been allocated incorrectly then this may merit a ground for appeal.

If staff work nights do they have the same role profile as a colleague who works the day shift?

Yes, if the role is the same then the role profile should be the same. The hours worked between 7pm and 6am will be paid at time and a third.

Will all staff who have the same role profile be paid the same amount?

Not necessarily, once a job is allocated to a role profile, the JWC points for that job are added to the role profile score. This will dictate where a job is allocated on to the new pay scale.

Will I be able to see the information that you used to evaluate my job?
No this will not be available until the appeal stage.

My post was evaluated recently. Why has my grade changed again?
Any recent evaluation would have been an ''interim'' result pending Job Evaluation. Different Job Evaluation schemes, although similar, look at different elements of jobs and put a different emphasis on each element which is why your score and ultimately your grade / salary may have changed. The scheme previously used by the Council to evaluate jobs was the Greater London Provincial Council (GLPC) scheme.

Why have you been consulting with the unions instead of with staff?
As a council we are committed to collective bargaining with the unions. Staff have been kept informed throughout the process via internal communications and staff road shows.

Why are we looking at Single Status now when there are concerns over council budgets and staff pensions?

After a lengthy process we have reached the stage where we have a proposed pay model and revised terms and conditions that we can formally consult with unions over. We are committed to this process and the equality that will result.

Is the Job Evaluation exercise a means of restructuring?

No it is not and it is not a cost cutting exercise.

Why would I be in a different job family to some of my workmates?

This may be quite natural if you are doing a different type of job. For example, an Administrative Officer is not likely to fall into the same family as a Social Worker (even if you work in the same office).

Why haven't my qualifications and experience been taken into account?

Each Job has been allocated based on the qualifications and experience required to do that job. You have not been assessed as an individual, so if you do have a higher level of qualifications or experience than is required by the job then this will not be taken into account.

How has the system handled positions that are job share where the responsibilities have been split differently?

Where there are clearly different duties then this is 'job splitting' and not 'job share'. One position (role) cannot have two scores so where this has been highlighted we have addressed it via managers.

Have there been instances where jobs straddle different families?

No job will be placed in two families as an end result. There have been circumstances where it has been difficult to decide the best family but through rigorous application of the process and reference to all the supporting information available a decision has always been made. (And if employees feel that the allocation is to the wrong job family, this is one of the grounds for appeal.)

Have you looked at similar roles in other organisations?

Yes, we have looked at 'like posts' and made comparisons both within the authority and where necessary across neighbouring authorities.

Will my allocation or job family change once I have been informed?

This may happen if an appeal is submitted which results in a change in grade.  The outcome of an appeal will be applied to all employees in the same job regardless of whether or not they were party to the appeal. It may also happen if your duties change for some reason in the future, or if an error is highlighted.

If I temporarily cover someone who is on a higher grade will I get the higher payment?

The answer to this question depends on where you are and what you do. The Council recognises that it may be necessary from time to time to apply an additional payment when an employee is requested to 'act up' into a higher graded post or temporarily undertake additional duties associated with a higher graded post. In these circumstances, honoraria payments may be made. Please see the Honorarium Policy for more information.

Will staff have new job descriptions?

New job descriptions / person specifications are not part of this exercise. The procedures for maintaining job descriptions will be unchanged and jds should be regularly reviewed by the manager and employee.

JDs will therefore continue to say ' .. and any other reasonable duties commensurate with the grade ..'. There will also be a policy, as now, to recognise the longer term undertaking of additional higher graded duties.  Jobs have been allocated/evaluated based on their current, permanent duties not any temporary arrangements.

The 'role profile' referred to is an integral part of this job evaluation process and it describes in very broad terms the type of work associated with a particular job evaluation outcome but it does not replace a job description at this moment.

What are the 'competencies' listed on the role profile?

These are behaviours required in a role profile which should be present in the post holder(s) in order for the job to be satisfactorily delivered.

What duties do I need to be a supervisor?

Roles that have supervisory / management responsibilities are identified as 'S' profiles and this decision is based upon the amount and degree of staff management and responsibility required. E.g. does the job undertake at least 3 supervisory responsibilities (such as return to work interviews, appraisals, assessing performance etc), and to what extent..

This is different to day to day support, mentoring or professional supervision.

I am on secondment, has my substantive post been allocated?

Yes, substantive posts have been allocated. Employees wishing to find out those gradings will need to speak to the Line Manager of their substantive post who can advise them accordingly.

When we receive our new grade will we also be provided with the criteria the job was allocated on e.g. the job description?

No this information will not be provided to staff although it will be made available at the appeal stage.

Why do I have a new post title?

In the JFA process managers have advised us of more current job titles. Also, where a type of post exists some have been streamlined, e.g. Benefits Assistant 1/2/3. Speak to your manager regarding this.

What does it mean in my post title  'S and D', BGS, Caretaker Level 1/2/3/4, D&T Technician Lower Level 2, D&T Technician Upper Level 2?

S and D = Supporting and Delivering Learning }

B-G-S = Behaviour Guidance and Support } in the National Profiles for Associate staff at Teaching Assistant Levels 3 and 4 these distinct profiles exist.

Caretaker  Level 1/2/3/4 + there are 4 National Profiles for Site Premises staff.

D& T Technician Lower Level 2/D&T Technician Upper Level 2 – these are examples where a National Profile does not exist but in the schools benchmarking process distinct levels of responsibility/tasks were identified.

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